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“LIBRARY | ; UNIMERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SCIENCES LIBRARY

LIBRARY.

“UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA REPKELEY. CALIFORNIA

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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

PRESENTED BY PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID

COSMOS:

A SKETCH

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE UNIVERSE,

BY

ALEXANDER VON |HUMBOLDT.

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN,

BY E. C. OTTER.

Naturee vero rerum vis atque majestas in omnibus momentis fide caret, si quis modo partee ejus ac non totam complectatur anime.—Plin., Hist. Nat., lib. vii. c. tL.

VOL. ft.

LONDON: GEORGE BELL & SONS, YORK ST., COVENT GARDEN, AND NEW YORK. 1893.

O/SS #E2

E92

gee

EARTH SCIENCES LIBRARY _I cannot more appropriately introduce the Cosmos to the ‘notice of the readers of the Scientific Library, than by pre- senting them with a brief sketch of the life of its illustrious _author.* While the name of Alexander yon Humboldt is _ familiar to every one, few, perhaps, are aware of the peculiar circumstances of his scientific career, and of the extent of his labours in almost every department of physical knowledge. He was born on the 14th of September, 1769, and is, there- fore, now in his 80th year. After going through the ordinary course of education at Géttingen, and having made a rapid tour through Holland, England, and France, he became a pupil of Werner at the mining school of Freyburg, and in his 21st year, published an Essay on the Basalts of the Rhine.” Though he soon became officially connected with the mining corps, he was enabled to continue his excursions in foreign countries, for during the six or seven years succeeding the publication of his first essay, he seems to have visited Austria, Switzerland, Italy, and France. His attention to mining did not, however, prevent him from devoting his attention to other scientific pursuits, amongst which botany and the then recent discovery of galvanism may be especially noticed. Botany, indeed, we know from his own authority, occupied him almost exclusively for some years, but even at this time he was practising the use of those astronomical and physical instruments, which he afterwards turned to so singularly excellent an account.

The political disturbances of the civilized world at the close _of the Jast century prevented our author from carrying out

TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE.

* For the following remarks I am mainly indebted to the articles on the Cosmos in the two leading quarterly Reviews.

Vou. L. b

Vies'72'7E0

vi - TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE.

various plans of foreign travel which he had contemplated, and detained him an unwilling prisoner in Europe. In the year 1799 he went to Spain, with the hope of entering Africa from Cadiz, but the unexpected patronage which he received at the Court of Madrid, led to a great alteration in his plans, and decided him to proceed directly to the Spanish Posses- sions in America, “‘ and there gratify the longings for foreign adventure, and the scenery of the tropics, which had haunted him from boyhood, but had all along been turned in the dia- metrically opposite direction of Asia.” After encountering various risks of capture, he succeeded in reaching America, and from 1799 to 1804 prosecuted there extensive researches in the physical geography of the New World, which have indelibly stamped his name in the undying records of science.

Excepting an excursion to Naples with Gay Lussac and Von Buch in 1805 (the year after his return from America), the succeeding twenty years of his life were spent in Paris, and were almost exclusively employed in editing the results of his American journey. In order to bring these results befure the world, in a manner worthy of their importance, he commenced a series of gigantic publications in almost every branch of science, on which he had instituted obser- vations. In 1817, after twelve years of incessant toil, four- fifths were completed, and an ordinary copy of the part then in print, cost considerably more than one hundred pounds sterling. Since that time the publication has gone on more slowly, and even now, after the lapse of nearly half a century, it remains, and probably ever will remain, incomplete.

In the year 1828, when the greatest portion of his literary labour had been accomplished, he undertook a_ scientific journey to Siberia, under the special protection of the Russian Government. In this journey—a journey for which he had prepared himself by a course of study unparallelled in the history of travel—he was accompanied by two companions hardly less distinguished than himself, Ehrenberg and Gustay

TRANSLATORS PREFACE. vit

Rose, and the results obtained during their expedition, are recorded by our author in his Fragments Asiatiques, and in his Aste Centrale, and by Rose in his Reise nach dem Oural. If the Asie Centrale had been his only work, constituting, as it does, an epitome of all the knowledge acquired by himself and by former travellers, on the physical geography of North- ern and Central Asia, that work alone would have sufficed to form a reputation of the highest order,

I proceed to offer a few remarks on the work of which I now present a new translation to the English public, a work intended by its author “to embrace a summary of physical knowledge, as connected with a delineation of the material universe.”

The idea of such a physical description of the universe had, it appears, been present to his mind from a very early epoch. It was a work which he felt he must accomplish, and he devoted almost a lifetime to the accumulation of materials for it. For almost half a century it had occupied his thoughts; and at length in the evening of life, he felt himself rich enough in the accumulation of thought, travel, reading, and experimental research, to reduce into form and reality, the undefined vision that has so long floated before him. The work when completed will form three volumes. The first volume comprises a sketch of all that is at present known of the physical phenomena of the universe: the second comprehends two distinct parts, the first of which treats of the incitements to the study of nature, afforded in descriptive poetry, landscape painting, and the cultivation of exotic plants; while the second and larger part enters intc the consideration of the different epochs in the progress o1 discovery and of the corresponding stages of advance im human civilisation. The third volume, the publication ot which, as M. Humboldt himself informs me in a letter addressed to my learned friend and publisher, Mr. H. G. Bohn, ‘has been somewhat delaved, owing to the present state ot

Vili TRANSLATOR S PREFACE

public affairs, will comprise the special and scientific develop. ment of the great Picture of Nature.” Each of the three parts of the Cosmos is therefore, to a certain extent, distinct in its object and may be considered complete in itself. We cannot better terminate this brief notice, than in the words of one of the most eminent philosophers of our own country, that ‘‘ should the conclusion correspond (as we doubt not) with these beginnings, a work will have been accom- plished, every way worthy of the author’s fame, and a crown- ng laurel added to that wreath, with which Europe will \ways delight to surround the name of Alexander von Hum- voldt.”

In venturing to appear before the English public as the interpreter of “the great work of our age,’* I have been encouraged by the assistance of many kind literary and scien- tific friends, and I gladly avail myself of this opportunity of expressing my deep obligations to Mr. Brooke, Dr. Day, Professor Edward Forbes, Mr. Hind, Mr. Glaisher, Dr. Percy, and Mr. Ronalds, for the valuable aid they have afforded me.

It would be scarcely right to conclude these remarks without a reference to the translations that have preceded mine. The translation, executed by Mrs. Sabine, is singularly accurate and elegant. The other translation is remarkable for the opposite qualities, and may therefore be passed over j silence. ‘The present volumes differ from those of Mrs. Sabin in having all the foreign measures converted into correspond.-. ing English terms, in being published .at considerably less than one third of the price, and in being a translation of the entire work, for I have not conceived myself justified im omitting passages, sometimes amounting to’ pages, simply because they might be deemed slightly obnoxious to our national prejudices.

* The expression applied to the Cosmos, by the learned Bunsen in

his late Report on Ethnology, in the Report of the British Association for 1847, p. 265.

AUTHOR’S PREFACE.

{in the late evening of an active life I offer to the German public a work, whose undefined image has floated before my mind for almost half acentury. Ihave frequently looked upon its completion as impracticable, but as often as I have been disposed to relinquish the undertaking, I have again—although perhaps imprudently—resumed the task. This work I now present to my cotemporaries, with a diffidence inspired by a just mistrust of my own powers, whilst I would willingly for- get that writings long expected are usually received with less indulgence.

Although the outward relations of life, and an irresistible impulse towards knowledge of various kinds, have led me to occupy myself for many years—and apparently exclusively— with separate branches of science, as, for instance, with descriptive botany, geognosy, chemistry, astronomical deter-- minations of position, and terrestrial magnetism, in order that

I might the better prepare myself for the extensive travels in which I was desirous of engaging, the actual object of my studies has nevertheless been of a higher character. The principal impulse by which I was directed, was the earnest endeayour to comprehend the phenomena of physical objects in _their general connection, and to represent nature as one great whole, moved and animated by internal forces. My inter- course with highly gifted men early led me to discover that without an earnest striving to attain to a knowledge of specia: branches of study, all attempts to give a grand and general view of the universe would be nothing more than a vain illusion. These special departments in the great domain of

x AUTHOR’S PREFACE.

natural science are, moreover, capable of being reciprocally fructified by means of the appropriative forces by which they are endowed. Descriptive botany, no longer confined to the narrow circle of the determination of genera and species, leads the observer who traverses distant lands and lofty mountains to the study of the geographical distribution of plants over the earth’s surface, according to distance from the equator and vertical elevation above the sea. It is further necessary to investigate the laws which regulate the differences of temperature and climate, and the meteorological processes of the atmosphere, before we can hope to explain the involved eauses of vegetable distribution; and it is thus that the observer who earnestly pursues the path of knowledge is led from one class of phenomena to another, by means of the mutual dependence and connection existing between them.

I have enjoyed an advantage which few scientific travellers have shared to an equal extent, viz., that of having seen not only littoral districts, such as are alone visited by the majority of those who take part in voyages of circumnavigation, but also those portions of the interior of two vast continents which present the most striking contrasts, manifested in the Alpine tropical landscapes of South America, and the dreary wastes of the steppes in Northern Asia. Travels, undertaken in dis- triets such as these, could not fail to encourage the natural tendency of my mind towards a generalisation of views, and to encourage me to attempt, in a special work, to treat of the knowledge which we at present possess, regarding the sidereal and terrestrial phenomena of the Cosmos in their empirical relations. The hitherto undefined idea of a physical geography has thus, by an extended and perhaps too boldly imagined & plan, been comprehended, under the idea of a_ physical description of the universe, embracing all created things in the regions of space and in the earth.

The very abundance of the materials which are presented to the mind for arrangement and definition, necessarily impart

AUTHOR'S PREFACE. xi

no inconsiderable difficulties in the choice of the form under which such a work must be presented, if it would aspire to the honour of being regarded as a literary composition. Descriptions of nature ought not to be deficient in a tone of life-like truthfulness, whilst the mere enumeration of a series of general results is productive of a no less wearying impres- sion than the elaborate accumulation of the individual data of observation. I scarcely venture to hope that I have succeeded in satisfying these various requirements of compo- sition, or that I have myself avoided the shoals and breakers which I have known how to indicate to others. My faint hope of success rests upon the special indulgence which the German public have bestowed upon a small work bearing the title of Ansichten der Natur, which I published soon after my zeturn from Mexico. This work treats, under general points of view, of separate branches of physical geography, (such as the forms of vegetation, grassy plains, and deserts.) The effect produced by this small volume has doubtlessly been more powerfully manifested in the influence it has exercised on the sensitive minds of the young, whose imaginative facul- ties are so strongly manifested, than by means of anything which it could itself impart. In the work on the Cosmos on which I am now engaged, I have endeavoured to show, as in that intitled Ansichten der Natur, that a certain degree of scientific completeness in the treatment of individual facts, is not wholly incompatible with a picturesque animation of style.

Since public lectures seemed to me to present an easy and efficient means of testing the more or less successful manner of connecting together the detached branches of any one science, I undertook, for many months consecutively, first in the French language, at Paris, and afterwards in my own native German, at Berlin, (almost simultaneously at two different places of assembly,) to deliver a course of lectures on the physical description of the universe, according to my conception

xil AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

of tne scienve. My lectures were given extemporaneously, both in French and German, and without the aid of written notes, nor have I, in any way, made use, in the present work, of those portions of my discourses which have been preserved by the industry of certain attentive auditors. With the exception of the first forty pages, the whole of the present work was written, for the first time, in the years 1843 and 1844.

A character of unity, freshness, and animatior, must, I think, be derived from an association with some definite epoch, where the object of the writer is to delineate the pre- sent condition of knowledge and opinions. Since the addi- tions constantly made to the latter give rise to fundamental changes in pre-existing views, my lectures and the Cosmos have nothing in common beyond the succession in which the various facts are treated. The first portion of my work contains introductory considerations regarding the diversity in the degrees of enjoyment to be derived from nature, and the knowledge of the laws by which the universe is governed; it also considers the limitation and scientific mode of treating a physical description of the universe; and gives a general picture of nature which contains a view of all the phenomena comprised in the Cosmos.

This general picture of nature, which embraces within its wide scope the remotest nebulous spots, and the revolving double stars in the regions of space, no less than the tellurie phenomena included under the department of the geography of organic forms (such as plants, animals, and races of men), comprises all that I deem most specially important with regard to the connection existing between generalities and specialities, whilst it moreover exemplifies, by the form and style of the composition, the mode of treatment pursued in the selection of the results obtained from experimental know- ledge. The two succeeding volumes will contain a consi-

deration of the particular means of incitement towards the

AUTHOKS PREFACE, xili

study of nature (consisting in animated delineations, land- scape painting, and the arrangement and cultivation of exotic vegetable forms), of the history of the contemplation of the universe, or the gradual development of the reciprocal action of natural forces constituting one natural whole; and lastly, of the special branches of the several departments of science, whose mutual connection is indicated in the begin- ning of the work. Wherever it has been possible to do so |] have adduced the authorities from whence I derived my facts, with a view of affording testimony both to the accuracy of my statements and to the value of the observations to which refer- ence was made. In those instances where I have quoted from my own writings (the facts contained in which being, from their very nature, scattered through different portions of my works), I have always referred to the original editions, owing to the importance of accuracy with regard to numerical re- lations, and to my own distrust of the care and correct- ness of translators. In the few cases where I have extracted short passages from the works of my friends, I have indicated them by marks of quotation; and, in imitation of the practice of the ancients, I have invariably preferred the repetition of the same words to any arbitrary substitution of my own paraphrases. The much contested question of priority of claim to a first discovery, which it ‘s so dangerous to treat of in a work of this uncontroversial kind, has rarely been touched upon. Where I have occasionally referred to clas- sical antiquity, and to that happy period of transition which has rendered the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries so cele- brated, owing to the great geographical discoveries by which the age was characterised, I have been simply led to adopt this mode of treatment, from the desire we experience from time to time, when considering the general views of nature, to escape from the circle of more strictly dogmatical modern opinions and enter the free and fanciful domain of earlies preser.timents.

xiv AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

It has frequently been regarded as a subject of discouraging consideration, that whilst purely literary products of intellec- tual activity are rooted in the depths of feeling, and inter- woven with the creative force of imagination, all works treat- ing of empirical knowledge, and of the connection of natural phenomena and physical laws, are subject to the most marked modifications of form in the lapse of short periods of time, both by the improvement in the instruments used, and by the consequent expansion of the field of view opened to rational observation, and that those scientific works which have, to use a common expression, become antiguated by the acquisition “of new funds of knowledge, are thus continually being consigned to oblivion as unreadable. However discouraging such a prospect must be, no one who is animated by a genuine love of nature, and by a sense of the dignity attached to its study, can view with regret anything which promises future additions and a greater degree of perfection to general knowledge. Many im- portant branches of knowledge have been based upon a solid foundation which will not easily be shaken, both as regards the phenomena in the regions of space and on the earth; whilst there are other portions of science in which general views will undoubtedly take the place of merely special; where new forces will be discovered and new substances will be made known, and where those which are now considered as simple will be decomposed. I would therefore venture to hope that an attempt to delineate nature in all its vivid animation and exalted grandeur, and to trace the stable amid the vacil- lating, ever-recurring alternation of physical metamorphoses, will not be wholly disregarded even at a future age.

Potsdam, Now. 1844

CONTENTS OF VOL. 1.

Pag

INTRO oo sda ob ddcauwas sénvencesiassscessnecincesvses s,

ec ra ccicbendedeessavederdess ose anascsuee. scons aed

Na ehh Galan shy si ku sdbeisedveobvesen ospsiies aseanghowohe {3] - INTRODUCTION.

The results of the study of physical phenomena ....................000. i

The different epochs of the contemplation of the external world ... 2 The different degrees of enjoyment presented by the contemplation

NEY 5h diay dca amdpn plangu ovenathye ducted pov ebs avd svdocansuakeoes 3 Instances of this species of enjoyment .................0000. Wisau cde toned 4 MN Ie MARIA NE AB SIMATIOOG oy each iosus wos vécvduseanivcieaiensodeeses 6

The elevations and climatic relations of many of the most celebrated mountains in the world, considered with reference to the effect _ produced on the mind of the observer ...............000.00s00e0- 6-—12 The impressions awakened by the aspect of tropical regions ......... 13 The more accurate knowledge of the physical forces of the universe. aequired by the inhabitants of a small section of the tempe-

EE Te Lined adatned iad dan vowurdnd vid dwew oveverssdecovwendctas¥e eee) es 15 The earliest dawn of the science of the Cosmos ....................2005 16 The difficulties that opposed the progress of inquiry .................. 17

Consideration of the effect produced on the mind by the observa- tion of nature, and the fear entertained by some of its injurious NON Ra hire tid pi 0e 2 Jcbsu ada psdcbdadaswohedydavéesncsssvensccaiyaceruh 20

Illustrations of the manner in which many recent discoveries have tended to remove the groundless fears entertained regarding

the agency of certain natural phenomena............... ...e0.s200 23 The amount of scientific knowledge required to enter on the corsi- deration of physical phenomena.................0.0eeeeceeceeceeess erat

The object held in view by the present work ................ceecee0e008 29 The nature of the study of the Cosmos................2.. sceseeseneee es 81 The special requirements of the present age ......... --......00. 2 8

AVL CONTENTS.

| P

Limits and method 2f exposition of t!,e physical description of the al MPPUUWOTME ys os cance vsnasipcebnascs sahebecaandee bs segeid secesc 37 Considerations on the terms physiology and physies ........ ......... 39 PRysical weography .. 65 65.05... co. vos ve daeedceben eee tate ccwnnecs co calc Celestial phehombna’. Serene cares 45

The natural philosophy of the ancients ‘Giubted a more on ‘colootial than to terrestrial phenomena .....5........ccec.ce cos cosceceeccecee 40 The able treatises of Varenius and Carl Ritter: oo ep s\wia'p yp ans heen

Signification of the word Cosmos .....................cscceeceeseecececeeee 51 The domain embraced by cosmography ..................c0c008 Nie knees 53 Empiricism aad experiments... cscs cab so ons cnc ccsseeheeeee neuen 57

The process of reason and induction.................. ccc cceseecessececeree 2

GENERAL REVIEW OF NATURAL PHENOMENA.

Connection between the material and the ideal world ............... 63 Delineation of nature... 02. 1.2. .0<sencse-cuscecsscse cue cob deeacddade nein Celestial phenomena ........0... ciscees., sanane ase pdpaoeaes hee sia ean 67

GUGOTCAL SYBGCINS 20.65. os e-.0ceee ces seasednnssuntivn dvs ckeasnuns lel eae PIANGUATY GYMCCUOS oa ooops osincnssne ssnendnoe soa aye lponneansoueedyeoeus Manne

COR ost cor, Sele ik essay bees daw dddes th hababed des dip iecus ee 85 BORE ibs Seas ylcleads ths sed Tadeo aalawssoacbatuetbodebheaae eee 97 Meee) Be is isos ceive sn -diech dca Gbcs yuck elie g Rela tee 127 Translatory motion of the solar system................cccseceesesceeceeees 135 TPS TARY WAS. 6a 81.04 5 cdiedgses Des ukond a oes ack ade 141 RARE OB ORDOIBIS, 5. cies isi. 4: andar gas daa gudemmivade che atagentede Gln Mee 143 Perresttial, PHENOMENA: .,..,.:. s.0seernehosane pon: eense ss connnponsecaensadilen 145 Geographical. distribution... ...4.....ss00<aseusesduacsseehaokscesboapy duet yaaa Pigure of the. Garth. .)... cicndisiscnas\casshoavane ~ hacnedlgnuaiaenined’ 155 Density of, Ge GUeed (sc: vecdedieien nanaian elle 347 eh oneknneeielaacoeetal 161 Internal heat of the earth ...............ces00- ai: | bolinen snnaad pitas pam cate 165 Mean temperature of the earth ..........cccccacccctaccecencoaccncsdacsacceus 167 Terrestrial magnetian, .....:):. <2) ia<is1gkccsovadeeansbevenshecucdeahes ia: sheen PEAR OMB. | ies eins cack. de aceon dca engdegenaen) <éapndéeeks tahtnankened 177 Aurora Borealis ...........c.:+s00 iddgepaginddeniesdicend(-saageineanel 187 Geognostic phenomena ssii.hacsjisvnsse sie sed sence \ecepiiatacssonsabsioneaee 197

Marth quakes.......ccsasaicsashiavaneesan nae ssunnequbeguae chencewereccessiunenaene maaan Piasoous emanations .'- id's. dsishiesh. ans aseduowasbstices aves codadubuaneeaesiallaa BAGG BPTING ........ssaseverisngadyueasbl bakepek kein Seadtiaiadin bu nielicwes iticbaaanaea ORL is ave xsdss so cncs yee daeceeeeaniees pa (pRdhe aadgragu segs plkeamocatcecmn ann

CONTENTS, xv

Nee eco ee ee Ni bed beabeasucebendacie 273 oe i a uoussdagestenbe 289 CE il aii c a tara oad can anus kdudsneaeaasegpsavanahe OUP Meteorology ... Nis ede ger aunihan anavacee sos enk ine AE Atmospheric presute .. PEE PTE hy ns AO ae te OPE EE ORE E TR re Bed: I ee My gee ia in Tair hac ialecs iaccse voy sacenuossdcntsh 323 oss eel a te 354 Ie eh vla de fy ino tcc chains avobpipcasedcnscsaat ee nee gt ea vy chs, als av anseneodwyedaey soe 341

ued dls da cS wbec cies nat 0 gs La 2d clan de bidhasslpSeaeasibe 347 I ee ec Ss, fi esata ceue Liv cpeacnuaccupamheaacnens 349 I ANE RETIN BE nn oe ovnk con rsvsdenes cohsncsadavecaserves 351 Geography of plants and animals ......... ...........scccecceeceqececeees 855 ROMO ON GITTOPOME COUNTIES o.oo... 0. chccoccsvecoccaccscavscesencveavoes> 359 Sa COREE a SaaS Secon: > Rie CAN BARE SephePSS tnd St a ities 361

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SUMMARY.

Translator’s Preface. Author’s Preface,

Vou. I. GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE CONTENTS,

introduction —Reflections on the different degrees of enjoyment pre sented to us by the aspect of nature, and the scientific exposition a the laws of the universe . Pp ; pp. 1-61.

Insight into the connection of iis as the aim of all natural investigation. Nature presents itself to meditative contemplation as a unity in diversity. Differences in the grades of enjoyment yielded by nature. Effect of contact with free nature; enjoyment derived from nature independently of a knowledge of the action of natural forces, o1 of the effect produced by the individual character of a locality. Effect of the physiognomy and configuration of the surface, or of the character of vegetation. Reminiscences of the woody valleys of the Cordilleras, and of the Peak of Teneriffe. Advantages of the mountainous region near the equator, where the multiplicity of natural impressions attains its maximum within the most circumscribed limits, and where it is per- mitted to man simultaneously to behold all the stars of che firmament, and all the forms of vegetation—pp. 1-12.

Tendency towards the investigation of the causes of physical pheno- mena. Erroneous views of the character of natura: forces arising from an imperfect mode of observation or of induction. The crude accumu- lation of physical dogmas transmitted from one century to another. Their diffusion amongst the higher classes. Scientific physics are asso- ciated with another and a deep-rooted system of untried and misunder- stood experimental positions. Investigation of natural laws. Appre- hension that nature may lose a portion of its secret charm by an inquiry into the internal character of its forces, and that the enjoyment of nature must necessarily be weakened by a study of its domain, Advantages of general views which impart an exalted and solemn character to natural science. The possibility of separating generalities from specialities. Examples drawn from astronomy, recent optical discoveries, physical geognosy, and the geography of plants. Practica. bility of the study of physical cosmography—pp. 12-35. Misunderstood popular knowledge, confounding cosmography with a mere encyclopedic enumeration of natural sciences. Necessity for a simultaneous regard for all branches o1 natural science. Influence of this study on national prosperity and the welfare of nations; its more earnest and characteristic

[ii] COSMOS.

sim is an inner one, arising from exalled mental activity. Mode of treatment with regard to the object and presentation; reciprocal cor - nection existing between thought and speech-—p, 36.

The notes to pp. 6-12. Comparative hypsometrical data of the eleva- tions of the Dhawalagiri, Jawahir, Chimborazo, Etna, (according to the measurement of Sir John Herschel), the Swiss A!ps, &e.—p. 6. Rarity of palms and ferns in the Himalaya mountains—p. 8. European vege- table forms in the Indian mountains—p. 8. Northern and southern limits of perpetual snow on the Himalaya; influence of the elevated plateau of Thibet—pp. 9-12. Fishes of an earlier world—p. 26.

Limits and Methoc of feEROnN of the ti klaba Description of the Universe j pp. 37-61.

Subjects embraced by the saint of the Codie or of physical cosmo- graphy. Separation of other kindred studies—pp. 37-44. The urano- logical portion of the Cosmos is more simple than the telluric; the impossibility of ascertaining the diversity of matter simplifies the study of the mechanism of the heavens. Origin of the word Cosmos, its signification of adornment and order of the universe. The existing cannot be absolutely separated in our contemplation of nature from the future. History of the world and description of the world—pp. 44-56. Attempts to embrace the multiplicity of the phenomena of the Cosmos in the unity of thought and under the form of a purely rational combi- nation. Natural philosophy which preceded all exact observation in antiquity is a natural, but not unfreqnently ill-directed, effort of reason. Two forms of abstraction rule the whole mass of knowledge, viz., the quantitative, relative determinations according to number and magni- tude, and qualitative, material characters. Means of submitting pheno mena to calculation. Atoms, mechanical methods of construction. Figurative representations; mythical conception of imponderable mat- ters, and the peculiar vital forces in every organism. ‘That which is attained by observation and experiment (calling forth phenomena) leads by analogy and induction to a knowledge of empirical laws; their gradual simplification and generalisation. Arrangement of the facts discovered in accordance with leading ideas. The treasure of empirical contemplation collected through ages, is in no danger of experiencing any hostile agency from philosophy—pp. 56-61.

[In the notes appended to pp. 48-53, are considerations of the general gnd comparative geography of Varenius. Philological investigation into the meaning of the words cocpog and mundus.}

Delineation of Nature. General Review of Natural Phenomena pp. 62-369.

Introduction—pp. 62-67. A descriptive delineation of the world embraces the whole universe (rd wav) in the celestial ard terrestrial spheres. Form and course of the representation. It begins with the depths of space, of which we know little beyond the existence of laws of gravitation, and with the region of the remotest nebnlous spots

SUMMARY. ii |

and double stars, and then gradnally descending through -he starry stratum to which our solar system belongs, it contemplates this terres- trial spheroid, surrounded by air and water, and finally, proceeds to the consideration of the form of our planet, its temperature, and magnetic tension, and the fulness of organic vitality which is un- folded on its surface under the action of light. Partial insight into the relative dependence existing amongst all phenomena. Amid all the mobile and unstable elements in space, mean numerical values are the ultimate aim of investigation, being the expression of the physical laws, or forces of the Cosmos. The delineation of the universe does not begin with the earth, from which a merely subjective point of view might have led us to start, but rather with the objects comprised in the regions of space. Distribution of matter, which is partially conglo- merated into rotating and circling heavenly bodies of very different density and magnitude, and partly scattered as self-luminous vapour. Review of the separate portions of the picture of nature for the purpose of explaining the reciprocal connection of all phenomena.

I. Celestial portion of the Cosmos 3 - - ; pp. 67-145. Il. Terrestrial portion of the Cosmos . 3 - pp. 145-369,

a. Form of the earth, its mean density, quantity of heat, electro- magnetic activity, process of light—pp. 145-197.

b. Vital activity of the earth towards its external surface. Re-action of the interior of a planet on its crust and surface. Subterranean noise without waves of concussion. Earthquakes dynamic phenomena— pp. 197-213.

¢c. Material products which frequently accompany earthquakes. Gaseous and aqueous springs. Salses and mud-volcanoes. Upheavals of the soil by elastic forces—pp. 213-226.

d. Fire-emitting mountains. Craters of elevation. Distribution of volcanoes on the earth—pp. 226-245.

e. Volcanic forces form new kinds of rock, and metamorphose those already existing. Geognostical classification of rocks into four groups. Phenomena of contact. Fossiliferous strata; their vertical arrangement. The faunas and floras of an earlier world. Distribution of masses of rock—pp. 245-288.

J. Geognostical epochs which are indicated by the mineralogical dif- ference of rocks have determined the distribution of solids and fluids into continents and seas. Individual configuration of solids into hori- zontal expansion and vertical elevation. Relations of area. Articu- lation. Probability of the continued elevation of the earth’s crust in ridges—pp. 288-306.

g. Liquid and aeriform envelopes of the solid surface of our planet. Distribution of heat in both. The sea. The tides. Currents and their effects—pp. 306-316.

h. The atmosphere. Its chemical composition. Fluctuations in its density. Law of the direction of the winds. Mean temperziure. Env- meration of the causes which tend to raise and lower the temperature.

Vou. I ¢

fiv | COSMOS.

Continental and insular climates. Fast and west coasts. Cause of the curvature of the isothermal lines. Limits of perpetual snow. Quantity of vapour. Electricity in the atmosphere. Forms of the clouds— pp. 316-347.

zt. Separation of inorganic terrestrial life from the geography of vital organisms; the geography of vegetables and animals. Physica] grada- tions of the human race—(pp. 347-369),

Special Analysis of the Delineation of Nature, including references te the subjects treated of in the Notes.

I. Celestial portion of the Cosmos . ; : : . pp. 67-145

The universe and all that it comprises—multiform nebulous spots, planetary vapour, and nebulous stars. The picturesque charm of a southern sk y—(note pp. 68-9). Conjectures on the position in space of the world. Our stellar masses. A cosmicalisland. Gauging stars. Double stars revolving round a common centre. Distance of the star 61 Cygni— (p. 72 and note). Our solar system more complicated than was conjec- fured at the close of the last century. Primary planets with Neptune, Astrea, Hebe, Iris, and Flora, now constitute 16; secondary planets 18; myriads of comets, of which many of the inner ones are enclosed in the orbits of the planets; a rotating ring (the zodiacal light) and meteoric stones, probably to be regarded as small cosmical bodies. The teles- copic planets, Vesta, Juno, Ceres, Pallas, Astrea, Hebe, Iris, and Flora, with their frequently intersecting, strongly inclined, and more eccentrie orbits, constitute a central group of separation between the inner plane- tary group (Mercury, Venus, the Earth, and Mars), and the outer group (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). Centrasts of these planetary groups. Relations of distance from one central body. Dif- ferences of absolute magnitude, density, period of revolution, eecentri- city and inclination of the orbits. The so-called law of the distances of the planets from their central sun. The planets which have the largest number of moons—(p. 80 and note). Relations in space both absolute and relative of the secondary planets. Largest and smallest of the moons. Greatest approximation to a primary planet. Retrogressive movement of the moons of Uranus. Libration of the Earth’s satellite—(p. 83 and note). Comets; the nucleus and tail; various forms and directions of the emanations in conoidal envelopes with more or less dense walls. Several tails inclined towards the sun; change of form of the tail; its conjectured rotation. Nature of light. Oceul- tations of the fixed stars by the nuclei of comets. Eccentricity of their orbits and periods of revolution. Greatest distance and greatest ap- proximation of comets. Passage through the system of Jupiter's satel- lites. Comets of short periods of revolution, more correctly termed inner comets (Enke, Biela, Faye)—(p. 94 and note.) Revolving aero- lites (meteoric stones, fire balls, falling stars). Their planetary velocity, magnitude, form, observed height. Periodic return in streams; the November stream and the stream of St. Lawrence. Chemical compo. sition of meteoric asteroids—(p. 117 and note. Ring of zodiacal

»

SUMMARY. (vj

light. Limitation of the present solar atmosphere—-(p. 13) and note), Translatory motion of the whole solar system—(pp. 135—139 and note). The existence of the law of gravitation beyond our solar system, The milky way of stars and its conjectured breaking up. Milky way of nebujous spots, at right angles with that of the stars. Periods of revo- lutions of bi-coloured double stars. Canopy of stars; openings in the stellar stratum. Events in the universe; the apparition of new stars Propagation of lieht, the aspect of the starry vault of the heavens con- -eys to the mind an idea of inequality of time—(pp.139~145 and notes).

Il. Terrestrial portion of the Cosmos F 3 . pp 145-369 a. Figure of the earth. Density, quantity of heat, electro-magnetic tension, and terrestrial light—(pp. 145-197 and note). Knowledge of the compression and curvature of the earth’s surface acquired by measurements of degrees, pendulum oscillations and certain inequa- lities in the moon’s orbit. Mean density of the earth. The earth’s crust, and the depth to which we are able to penetrate—(p. 151 note). Three-fold movement of the heat of the earth; its thermic condition Law of the increase of heat with the increase of depth—(p. 152 and note). Magnetism electricity in motion. Periodical variation of ter- restrial magnetism. Disturbance of the regular course of the magnetic needle. Magnetic storms; extension of their action. Manifestations of magnetic force on the earth’s surface presented under three classes of phenomena; viz.: lines of equal force (isodynamic); equal inclination (isoclinic); and equal deviation (isogonic). Position of the magnetic pole. Its probable connection with the poles of cold. Change of all the magnetic phenomena of the earth. Erection of magnetic obser- vatories since 1828; a far-extending net-work of magnetic stations— (p. 184 and note). Development of light at the magnetic poles; terres: trial light as a consequence of the electro-magnetic activity of our planet. Elevation of polar light. Whether magnetic storms are ac- companied by noise? Connection of polar light (an electro-magnetic development of light) with the formation of cirrus clouds. Other examples of the generation of terrestrial light—(p. 197 and note).

b. The vital activity of a planet manifested from within outward, the principal source of geognostic phenomena. Connection between merely dynamic concussions or the upheaval of whole portions of the earth’s crust, accompanied by the effusion of matter, and the gene ration of gaseous and liquid fluids, of hot mud and fused earths, which solidify into rocks. Volcanic action in the most general conception ot the idea, is the reaction of the interior of a planet on its outer surface. Earthquakes. Extent of the circles of commotion and their gradual increase. Whether there exists any connection between the changes in terrestrial magnetism and the processes of the atmosphere. Noises, subterranean thunder without any perceptible concussion. The rocks which modify the propagation of the waves of concussion. Upheavals; eruption of water, hot steam, mud mofettes, smoke and flame during an eartiquake—(pp. 197-214 and notes).

¢. Closer consideration of materia. products as a consequence o.

[vi] COSMOS.

internal planetary activity. There rise from the depths of the earth through fissures and cones of eruption, various gases, liquid fluids (pure or acidulated), mud and molten earths. Volcanoes are a species of intermittent spring. Temperature of thermal springs; their constancy and change. Depth of the foci—(pp. 218-221 and notes). Salses, mud-voleanoes. Whilst fire-emitting mountains being sources of molten earths, produce volcanic rocks, spring water forms, by precipitation, strata of limestone. Continued generation of sedimentary rocks—(p. 226 and note).

d. Diversity of voleanic elevations. Dome-like closed trachytic mountains. Actual volcanoes which are formed from craters of eleva- tion or among the detritus of their original structure. Permanent con- nection of the interior of our earth with the atmosphere. Relation to certain rocks. Influence of the relations of height on the frequency of the eruptions. Height of the cone of cinders. Characteristics of those volcanoes which rise above the snow-line. Columns of ashes and fire. Volcanic storm during the eruption. Mineral composition of lavas—(p. 234 and notes). Distribution of volcanoes on the earth’s surface; central and linear volcanoes; insular and littoral voleanoes. Distance of volcanoes from the sea-coast. Extinction of volcanic forces —(p. 245 and notes).

e. Relation of voleanoes to the character of rocks.—Voleanie forces form new rocks, and metamorphose the more ancient ones. The study ofthese relations leads by a double course to the mineral portion of geognosy, (the study of the textures and of the position of the earth’s strata), and to the configuration of continents and insular groups ele- vated above the level of the sea (the study of the geographical form and outlines of the different parts of the earth.) Classification of rocks according to the scale of the phenomena of structure and metamorphosis, which are still passing before our eyes. Rocks of eruption, sedimentary rocks, changed (metamorphosed) rocks, conglomerates—compound rocks are definite associations of oryctognostically simple fossils. There are four phases in the formative condition; rocks of eruption, endogenous (granite, sienite, porphyry, greenstone, hypersthene, rock, euphotide, me- laphyre, basalt, and phonolithe) ; sedimentary rocks (silurian schist, coal measures, lime stone, travertino, infusorial deposit); metamorphosed rock, which contains also together with the detritus of the rocks of eruption and sedimentary rocks, the remains of gneiss, mica schist, and more ancient metamorphic masses. Aggregate and sandstone forma- tions. The phenomenon of contact explained by the artificial imita- tion of minerals. Effects of pressure and the various rapidity of cooling. Origin of granular or saccharoidal marble, silicification of schist into ribbon jasper. Metamorphosis of caleareous marl into micaceous schist through granite. Conversion of dolomite and gra- nite into argillaceous schist, by contact with basaltic and doleritic rocks, Filling up of the veins from below. Processes of cemen- tation in agglomerate structures. Friction conglomerates—(p. 271 and note). Relative age of rocks, chronometry of the earth’s crust. Fossiliferous strata. Relative age of organisms. Simplicity of the first

SUMMARY. [ vil)

ital forms. Dependence of physiological gradations on the age of tha formations. Geognostic horizon, whose careful investigation may yield certain data regarding the identity or the relative age of formations, the periodic recurrence of certain strata, their parallelism, or their total suppression. Types of the sedimentary structures considered in their most simple and general characters; silurian and devonian formations (formerly known as rocks of transition); the lower trias (mountain lime-ston2, coal-measures, together with todéliegende and zechstein) ; the upper trias (bunter sandstone, muschelkalk, and keuper); jura lime- stone (lias and oolite); free-stone, lower and upper chalk, as the last of the flétz strata, which begin with mountain limestone; tertiary formations in three divisions, which are designated by granular lime- stone, lignite, and south apennine gravel—pp. 271-280.

‘he faunas and floras of an earlier world, and their relations to exist- ing organisms. Colossal bones of antediluvian mammalia in the upper alluvium. Vegetation of an earlier world; monuments of the history of its vegetation. The points at which certain vegetable groups attain their maximum; cycadez in the keuper and lias, and coniferee in the bunter sandstone. Lignite and coal measures (amber-tree). Deposition of large masses of rock ; doubts regarding their origin—p. 288 and note.

Ff. The knowledge of geognostic epochs—of the upheaval of mountain